Испания

Обширна по площ, Испания разкрива пейзаж с много плата, хълмисти равнини и планини. Като част от Югозападна Европа тя е заобиколена от водите на Средиземно море, Северния атлантически океан, Бискайския залив, от възвишенията на Пиринеите на север, положена между Португалия и Франция.

Със завидна история и култура страната е вписала в световното изобразително изкуство, литература, кино, музика, мода и спорт личности и творци като Пабло Пикасо, Салвадор Дали, Франциско де Гоя, Мигел де Сервантес, Педро Алмодовар, Пласидо Доминго, Хосе Карерас, Хулио Иглесиас, Джон Галиано, Рафаел Надал, Кака и много други. Сред списъка с паметниците, признати от ЮНЕСКО, се отличава пещерата Алтамира със своите рисунки от палеолита, катедралата в Бургос и кралският манастир Санта Мария де Гуаделупе, фарът Кулата на Херкулес.

Във всеки град на Испания се крият много очарование и местен колорит. Билбао е важно индустриално пристанище, известно още с музея за съвременно изкуство Гугенхайм. Сантяго де Компостела е богат на религиозни традиции и минало. Толедо, известен още като „Градът на трите култури”, пази архитектурно и историческо наследство на християни, мюсюлмани и евреи. Сан Себастиян е място за любителите на красивите плажове и висок клас ресторанти. Във Валенсия има цял Град на изкуствата и науките, а в катедралата в Севиля е погребан Христофор Колумб. Барселона съчетава архитектурните забележителности на гениалния архитект Антони Гауди с възможности за пазаруване и нощен живот. Мадрид като столица и най-голям град на Испания пленява с многообразието от култури и етноси, събития и забавления.

Официалният език е кастилски испански, говорен от 74% от населението, като останалите езици – каталански (17%), галисийски (7%), баски (2% ) – са нормативно признати в областите на съответните им общности и дори варират в отделните райони.

Месото е на особена почит при испанците, въпреки че и зеленчуците могат да се поднесат като основна гозба, а доматът заема най-специално място. Типичното ястие – паеля или „тиган“ – съчетава ориз, шафран и зехтин, допълнени от месо, риба, морски дарове, зеленчуци, а специалитетът кесо манчего е сирене, приготвено от овче мляко. С тапас или пинчос могат да се опитат на крак малки порции различни видове храна като разядка или мезе, а тортиля еспаньола е местният картофен омлет.

Националният празник на Испания е 12 октомври и чества откриването на Америка от Колумб. Февруари и март са месеците, изпълващи страната с фестивално настроение. Карнавалите в Кадис, в Санта Круз де Тенерифе, в Ситжес, Лас Фалас във Валенсия са тържества на пеенето, танцуването, пъстрите костюми и шумните веселби. От март до октомври почитателите на коридата, бикоборството или надбягването с бикове могат да присъстват на редица събития – Пролетния панаир в Севиля, ежегодния Фестивал в Сан Исидро, Фиестата на Сан Фермин и др. Под звуците на фламенкото се провеждат Международният фестивал на музиката и танца в Гранада и Феерията в Малага. Винените битки в Риоха са в края на юни, а боят с презрели домати Ла Томатина във Валенсия е през август.

Населението на Испания е 47 737 941 души – от тях католици са 94%. Страната е парламентарна монархия със 17 административни автономни области. Национален символ са Стълбовете на Херкулес, които изразяват двата носа, ограничаващи входа през Гибралтарския проток, и присъстват на държавния флаг. Климатът е умерен с ясни горещи лета и студени зими във вътрешността и по-хладно и облачно време по крайбрежието. Испания приема еврото през 1999 г. Има две времеви зони: UTC +00 и UTC +01. Телефонният код е +34.

Всички права върху този текст са запазени и защитени от Закона за авторските права!


15.07.2016

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